Group 2 AS

Trends down the group

 

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Reactions with water and oxygen

 

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Using Magnesium to extract Titanium

Using Magnesium to Extract titanium Titanium is a very useful metal because it is abundant, has a low density and is corrosion resistant – it is used for making strong, light alloys for use in aircraft for example. Titanium cannot be extracted with carbon because titanium carbide (TiC) it is formed rather than titanium (similar reactions take place for vanadium, tungsten and molybdenum). Titanium cannot be extracted by electrolysis because it has to be very pure. Titanium is extracted by reaction with a more reactive metal (e.g. Mg, Na). Steps in extracting Titanium 1. TiO2 (solid) is converted to TiCl4 (liquid) at 900C: 2. The TiCl4 is purified by fractional distillation in an Ar atmosphere. 3. The Ti is extracted by Mg in an Ar atmosphere at 500C TiO2 + 2 Cl2 + 2 C  TiCl4 + 2 CO TiO2 is converted to TiCl4 as it can be purified by fractional distillation, TiCl4 being molecular (liquid at room temperature) rather than ionic like TiO2 (solid at room temperature). Titanium is expensive because 1. The expensive cost of the Mg 2. This is a batch process which makes it expensive because the process is slower (having to fill up and empty reactors takes time) and requires more labour and the energy is lost when the reactor is cooled down after stopping 3. The process is also expensive due to the Ar, and the need to remove moisture (as TiCl4 is susceptible to hydrolysis). 4. High temperatures required in both steps This all makes titanium expensive even though it is a relatively abundant metal. It is only therefore used to a limited amount even though it has useful properties

Solubility of hydroxides and sulfates

 

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Credits: Neil Goalby