Ionisation Energies Definition :First ionisation energy The first ionisation energy is the enthalpy change when one mole of gaseous atoms forms one mole of gaseous ions with a single positive charge This is represented by the equation: H(g) H+ (g) + e- Always gaseous Remember these definitions very carefully The equation for 1st ionisation energy always follows the same pattern. It does not matter if the atom does not normally form a +1 ion or is not gaseous The second ionisation energy is the enthalpy change when one mole of gaseous ions with a single positive charge forms one mole of gaseous ions with a double positive charge Definition :Second ionisation energy This is represented by the equation: Ti+ (g) Ti2+ (g) + e- Factors that affect Ionisation energy There are three main factors 1.The attraction of the nucleus (The more protons in the nucleus the greater the attraction) 2. The distance of the electrons from the nucleus (The bigger the atom the further the outer electrons are from the nucleus and the weaker the attraction to the nucleus) 3. Shielding of the attraction of the nucleus (An electron in an outer shell is repelled by electrons in complete inner shells, weakening the attraction of the nucleus) Many questions can be answered by application of these factors The patterns in successive ionisation energies for an element give us important information about the electronic structure for that element. Successive ionisation energies 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ionisation energy No of electrons removed Notice the big jump between 4 and 5. Explanation The fifth electron is in a inner shell closer to the nucleus and therefore attracted much more strongly by the nucleus than the fourth electron. It also does not have any shielding by inner complete shells of electron Why are successive ionisation energies always larger? The second ionisation energy of an element is always bigger than the first ionisation energy. When the first electron is removed a positive ion is formed. The ion increases the attraction on the remaining electrons and so the energy required to remove the next electron is larger. How are ionisation energies linked to electronic structure? 1 2 3 4 5 Ionisation energy kJ mol-1 590 1150 4940 6480 8120 Here there is a big jump between the 2nd and 3rd ionisations energies which means that this element must be in group 2 of the periodic table as the 3rd electron is removed from an electron shell closer to the nucleus with less. The first Ionisation energy of the elements The shape of the graph for periods two and three is similar. A repeating pattern across a period is called periodicity. The pattern in the first ionisation energy gives us useful information about electronic structure You need to carefully learn the patterns Many questions can be answered by application of the 3 factors that control ionisation energy Q. Why has Helium the largest first ionisation energy? A. Its first electron is in the first shell closest to the nucleus and has no shielding effects from inner shells. He has a bigger first ionisation energy than H as it has one more proton Q. Why do first ionisation energies decrease down a group? A. As one goes down a group, the outer electrons are found in shells further from the nucleus and are more shielded so the attraction of the nucleus becomes smaller Q. Why is there a general increase in first ionisation energy across a period? A. As one goes across a period the electrons are being added to the same shell which has the same distance from the nucleus and same shielding effect. The number of protons increases, however, making the effective attraction of the nucleus greater. Q. Why has Na a much lower first ionisation energy than Neon? This is because Na will have its outer electron in a 3s shell further from the nucleus and is more shielded. So Na’s outer electron is easier to remove and has a lower ionisation energy. Q. Why is there a small drop from Mg to Al? Al is starting to fill a 3p sub shell, whereas Mg has its outer electrons in the 3s sub shell. The electrons in the 3p subshell are slightly easier to remove because the 3p electrons are higher in energy and are also slightly shielded by the 3s electrons Learn carefully the explanations for these two small drops as they are different to the usual factors Q. Why is there a small drop from P to S? 3s 3p With sulphur there are 4 electrons in the 3p sub shell and the 4th is starting to doubly fill the first 3p orbital. When the second electron is added to a 3p orbital there is a slight repulsion between the two negatively charged electrons which makes the second electron easier to remove. 3s 3p Two electrons of opposite spin in the same orbital phosphorus 1s2 2s2 2p63s23p3 sulphur 1s2 2s2 2p63s23p4
126.96.36.199 Electron configuration
Students should be able to: • define first ionisation energy • write equations for first and successive ionisation energies • explain how first and successive ionisation energies in Period 3 (Na–Ar) and in Group 2 (Be–Ba) give evidence for electron configuration in sub-shells and in shells.