3 Reactions involving amines

 

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Oxford Textbook Pages : 444 - 447

CGP Revision Guide Pages : 176 - 177

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Show Specification Ref : 3.3.11.1, 3.3.11.3

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Question 1 / 5

AQA Jun 2016 Paper 2 Q8 section b answer all questions in the spaces provided do not write outside the box two reactions of bromopentane ch ch ch chbrch are shown c h reaction ch ch ch chbrch reaction c h oh the c h formed in reaction exists as a mixture of three isomers one of which is pent ene two of the isomers are a pair of stereoisomers all three isomers decolourise bromine a the same reagent is used in both reactions the product is determined by the choice of conditions state the reagent and the conditions for each of reaction and reaction state the role of the reagent in each reaction name and outline the mechanism of reaction for the formation of pent ene marks wmp jun chem do not write outside the box b all three isomers of c h contain the same functional group draw the displayed formula of pent ene draw the structures of the pair of stereoisomers and give their full iupac names explain the origin of the stereoisomerism shown marks turn over wmp jun chem do not write outside the box c the rates of hydrolysis of two chloroalkanes can be investigated by adding aqueous silver nitrate to the chloroalkanes during the hydrolysis reactions chloride ions are liberated slowly precipitates of silver chloride are formed outline a method to compare the rate of hydrolysis of chlorobutane with that of chlorobutane state how the method would ensure a fair test marks wmp jun chem turn over for the next question do not write on this page answer in the spaces provided turn over wmp jun chem
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Question 2 / 5

AQA Jan 2012 Paper 4 Q8 do not write outside the box common substances used in everyday life often contain organic compounds a state an everyday use for each of the following compounds a i ch ch coo na mark a ii ch ch cooch mark a iii c h n ch br mark b the following structures are the repeating units of two different condensation polymers for each example name the type of condensation polymer give a common name for a polymer of this type b i ch ch o type of condensation polymer common name marks b ii h o type of condensation polymer common name marks wmp jan chem b iii explain why the polymer in part b ii has a higher melting point than the polymer in part b i marks extra space do not write outside the box turn over for the next question turn over wmp jan chem
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Question 3 / 5

AQA Jun 2013 Paper 4 Q5 do not write outside the box lactic acid ch ch oh cooh is formed in the human body during metabolism and exercise this acid is also formed by the fermentation of carbohydrates such as sucrose c h o a i give the iupac name for lactic acid mark a ii write an equation for the formation of lactic acid from sucrose and water mark b a molecule of lactic acid contains an asymmetric carbon atom the lactic acid in the body occurs as a single enantiomer a racemic mixture racemate of lactic acid can be formed in the following two stage synthesis ch c o stage hcn ch c cn oh stage ch c cooh oh b i name and outline a mechanism for stage name of mechanism mechanism marks wmp jun chem do not write outside the box b ii give the meaning of the term racemic mixture racemate mark b iii explain how you could distinguish between a racemic mixture racemate of lactic acid and one of the enantiomers of lactic acid marks c a mixture of lactic acid and its salt sodium lactate is used as an acidity regulator in some foods an acidity regulator makes sure that there is little variation in the ph of food c i write an equation for the reaction of lactic acid with sodium hydroxide mark c ii the acid dissociation constant ka for lactic acid has the value mol dm at k calculate the ph of an equimolar solution of lactic acid and sodium lactate marks question continues on the next page turn over wmp jun chem do not write outside the box c iii suggest an alternative name for the term acidity regulator explain how a mixture of lactic acid and sodium lactate can act as a regulator when natural processes increase the acidity in some foods name explanation marks extra space d the cup shown is made from pla poly lactic acid pla is the condensation polymer formed from lactic acid the polymer is described as biodegradable and compostable compostable material breaks down slowly in contact with the moist air in a garden bin this produces compost that can be used to improve soil the manufacturers stress that pla cups differ from traditional plastic cups that are neither biodegradable nor compostable d i draw a section of pla that shows two repeating units marks wmp jun chem do not write outside the box d ii name the type of condensation polymer in pla mark d iii an intermediate in the production of pla is a cyclic compound c h o that is formed from two pla molecules draw the structure of this cyclic compound d iv traditional non biodegradable plastic cups can be made from poly phenylethene commonly known as polystyrene draw the repeating unit of poly phenylethene mark mark d v the manufacturers of pla claim that the material will break down to compost in just weeks suggest one reason why pla in landfill may take longer than weeks to break down mark turn over wmp jun chem
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Question 4 / 5

AQA Jun 2013 Paper 4 Q8 section b do not write outside the box answer all questions in the spaces provided a this question is about the primary amine ch ch ch nh the amine ch ch ch nh reacts with ch cocl name and outline a mechanism for this reaction give the iupac name of the organic product marks wmp jun chem do not write outside the box b isomers of ch ch ch nh include another primary amine a secondary amine and a tertiary amine b i draw the structures of these three isomers label each structure as primary secondary or tertiary b ii use table on the data sheet to explain how you could use infrared spectra in the range outside the fingerprint region to distinguish between the secondary amine and the tertiary amine marks marks question continues on the next page turn over wmp jun chem do not write outside the box c the amine ch ch ch nh can be prepared by two different routes route a is a two stage process and starts from ch ch br route b is a one stage process and starts from ch ch ch br c i identify the intermediate compound in route a give the reagents and conditions for both stages in route a and the single stage in route b marks c ii give one disadvantage of route a and one disadvantage of route b marks wmp jun chem
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Question 5 / 5

AQA Jun 2015 Paper 4 Q5 consider the following reaction sequence starting from methylbenzene do not write outside the box ch ch ch reaction reaction no nh a name the type of mechanism for reaction mark b compound j is formed by reduction in reaction b i give a reducing agent for this reaction mark b ii write an equation for this reaction use h to represent the reducing agent mark b iii give a use for j mark wmp jun chem do not write outside the box c outline a mechanism for the reaction of bromomethane with an excess of compound j you should represent j as rnh in the mechanism marks d compound k c h ch nh is a structural isomer of j explain why j is a weaker base than k marks turn over wmp jun chem
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